Metaphysics studies questions related to what it is for something to exist and what types of existence there are. This section does not cite any sources.
Like mathematics, metaphysics is a non-empirical study which is conducted using deduction from that which is known a priori. There are two broad stances about what is “the world” studied by metaphysics. Identity is a fundamental metaphysical issue. Metaphysicians investigating identity are tasked with the question of what, exactly, it means for something to be identical to itself, or — more controversially — to something else.
Issues of identity arise in the context of time: what does it mean for something to be itself across two moments in time? How do we account for this? Another question of identity arises when we ask what our criteria ought to be for determining identity? The metaphysical positions one takes on identity have far-reaching implications on issues such as the mind-body problem, personal identity, ethics, and law. The ancient Greeks took extreme positions on the nature of change.
Made change central – which are part of the larger domain of metaphysics. In his book defending compatibilism — george as The Logical Structure of the World. Consciousness in the Upanishads means the knowledge about the existence and nature of Brahman.